Timeline of Bangladesh

সময়ের স্রোতে ঘটনাবহুল নানা স্মৃতি রয়েছে বাংলার ইতিহাসে। তারই কিছুটা এখানে যোগ করে রাখা হল।

 

Source: Bangladesh Documents 1971

  • 1947
    14 August
    1947
    The Indian Subcontinent was partitioned. The Sovereign Dominion States of (Hindu) India and (Muslim) Pakistan came into being. Pakistan comprised two Muslim majority regions in the north-west and north-east of India. The north-eastern region comprised East Bengal while the north-western part consisted of Sind, Baluchistan, the North-West Frontier Province and part of the Punjab. Hindus who, as the majority community in undivided India, aspired to be the sole inheritors of power after the departure of the British, did not like the creation of Pakistan.
  • 1947
    27 October
    1947
    India sent troops to annex forcibly the Muslim majority State of Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmiris, aided by Pakistani tribesmen, resisted. The Pakistan army, still in its embryonic stage joined the war in May 1948. The U.N. Security Council imposed a cease-fire on 1 January 1949, with the promise of holding a plebiscite to determine the wishes of the Kashmiris. The plebiscite was never held and the Kashmir issue has bedevilled Indo-Pakistan relations ever since. East Bengal, 1600 kilometers away from Kashmir, was never as passionately involved in the issue as the western wing of Pakistan.
  • 1948
    21 March
    1948
    Quaid-e-Azam, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan and its first Governor- General, while on a visit to East Bengal, declared in Dacca that Urdu would be the only state language of Pakistan. The remark evoked an angry protest from the Bengali youth who took it as an affront: their language Bangla (Bengali) was after all, spoken by fifty four percent of the population of Pakistan. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, then a university students, was among those who raised the protest slogan and was placed under detention. The Dacca University campus became the focal point for student meetings in support of the Bangla language.
  • 1948
    11 September
    1948
    The Quaid-e-Azam died. Khwaja Nazim-ud-Din, the Bengali Chief Minister of East Bengal, succeeded him as Governor-General. Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan, a close confidant of the Quaid-e-Azam, continued as Prime Minister of the grief-stricken country.
  • 1949
    March - April
    1949
    Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, a prominent Bengali leader, founded the Awami Muslim League at Narayanganj (Dacca). Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became one of its three Assistant General Secretaries. The party drew its strength from the Bengali enthusiasts and the disgruntled old politicians who received no share of power in the independent country. In September, another party with the same name was formed by Pir Manki Sharif in the North-West Frontier province. In February 1950, the two Leagues were integrated. A popular Bengali leader H.S. Suhrawardy became the president of this new party, called the Pakistan Awami Muslim League.
  • 1951
    16 October
    1951
    Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated while addressing a public meeting in Rawalpindi. Khawaja Nazim-ud-Din stepped down to take his place as the Prime Minister. Mr. Ghulam Mohammad, a career government servant, intrigued successfully to occupy the vacant seat at the top.
  • 1952
    26 January
    1952
    The Basic Principles Committee of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan announced its recommendations which, inter alia, said that Urdu should be the only state language. It sparked off a wide wave of resentment in East Bengal.
  • 1952
    30 January
    1952
    Bengalis held protest meetings in Dacca against the latest move ‘to dominate the majority province of East Bengal linguistically and culturally.’ The provincial chief of the Awami Muslim League, Maulana Bhashani, also addressed these meetings. It was decided to hold a general strike on 21 February, when the East Bengal Assembly was due to meet for its budget session.
  • 1952
    21 February
    1952
    A general strike was observed and the procession taken out, despite the official ban imposed by Mr. Nurul Amins administration. The students clashed with the police and three students and a number of other people were killed. Shaheed Minars (Memorials) were raised to commemorate there sacrifice. Later, these memorials became the rallying symbol for the Bengalis a place of pilgrimage for provincial governors and diplomats.
  • 1953
    17 April
    1953
    Governor-General Ghulam Mohammad dismissed Khawaja Nazim-ud-Din’s ministry, without giving it a chance to face the national parliament. This further angered the Bengalis who regarded it a ‘conspiracy against Bengalis’. Ghulam Mohammad quickly recalled Mr. Mohamamd Ali Bogra, another Bengali, from his ambassadorial assignment in Washington, and installed him as Prime Minister. Mr. Bogra had no power base in East Bengal, he therefore played into the hands of his Punjabi patron, Ghulam Mohammad.
  • 1953
    April
    1953
    The Awami Muslim League dropped the word ‘Muslim’ from its title to reflect its true secular character. The old Muslim Leaguers resigned from it and their seats were filled by moneyed Hindu politicians who later influenced its policies immensely.
  • 1953
    September
    1953
    Maulvi Fazlul Haq, the ‘Lion of Bengal’, who had moved the Pakistan Resolution on 23 March 1940, formed his own political party in Dacca. It was called the Krishak Sramik Party (the labour peasant party). The founding and growth of the Awami League and the K.S.P in East Bengal, on the one hand, showed the dissatisfaction with the ruling Muslim League and, on the other, reflected the emergence of secular politics in the province.
  • 1954
    08 - 11 March
    1954
    Elections were held for the East Bengal Legislative Assembly - for the first time since independence. The East Bengal parties, Awami League. K.S.P and others formed the United Front to oppose the ruling Muslim League. The first item on the twenty one point manifesto of the Front was the recognition of Bangla as a state language of Pakistan. Another important point was the demand for provincial autonomy. The Muslim League won only 9 seats in a house of 310 and Chief Minister Nurul Amin was defeated by a student nominee of the Front.
  • 1954
    30 March
    1954
    The United Front was called upon to form the government. Three days later, the new government was sworn in, with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as one of the provincial Ministers.
  • 1954
    30 May
    1954
    The United Front government was dismissed by the Governor-General because of allegedly seditious statements made by Chief Minister Fazlul Haque, at Calcutta airport a few days earlier. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was also detained. Governor’s Rule was imposed in the province. The United Front disintegrated. The Centre tried to woo the Awami League and K.S.P. separately in pursuance of its own interests.
  • 1954
    24 October
    1954
    Governor-General Ghulam Mohammad dissolved the Constituent Assembly. The new Government, without a parliament, was formed by Mohammad Ali Bogra, with the Army Commander-in-Chief, General Mohammad Ayub Khan, as its Defence Minister.
  • 1955
    15 April
    1955
    The new eighty-member Constituent Assembly was created by drawing members from the Provincial legislatures. The Awami League and K.S.P sent their nominees- a new element in the national politices.
  • 1955
    June
    1955
    Governor’s Rule in East Bengal was lifted. K.S.P., which co-operated with the Muslim League in the capital, formed the government in Dacca. The Awami League sat in opposition.
  • 1955
    6 August
    1955
    Mr. Ghulam Mohammad, an ailing intriguer finally quitted. Mr. Iskander Mirza, a non- political crafty fellow, was sworn in as Governor-General on 7 September. He installed Chuadhry Mohamamd Ali, a nominee of the Muslim League, as the Prime Minister, although H.S. Suhroawardy, as the leader of the Awami League, claimed the right to form a government. The Bengalis threated it as yet another conspiracy to deny political power to the Bengalis.
  • 1955
    7 September
    1955
    Mr. Ataur Rahman Khan of the Awami League said in the East Bengal Legislative Assembly. ‘The attitude of the Muslim League coterie here was of contempt towards East Bengal, towards its culture, its language, its literature and everything concerning East Bengal. In fact, Sir, I tell you that, far from considering us an equal partner, the leaders of the Muslim League thought that we were a subject race and they belonged to the race of conquerors.’
  • 1955
    14 October
    1955
    The west wing provinces of the Punjab, N.W.F.P. Baluchistan and Sind were grouped into one Unit called West Pakistan. The West Pakistan Bill had been passed, a fortnight earlier, to give a rational basis of equality between the two wings. East Bengal, the majority province, considered it a fresh move to deprive the Bengalis of their legitimate rights.
  • 1956
    29 February
    1956
    The Constituent Assembly passed the country’s first constitution with the relentless efforts of Chaudhry Mohammad Ali. It was enforced three weeks later (23 March). The constitution placed the inter-wing relations on a ‘principle of party’ i.e. equal representation in the Parliament. Pakistan became a Republic and the Governor-General, the President of Pakistan. Bangla was recognized as a state language, as well as Urdu.
  • 1956
    20 August
    1956
    The K.S.P Government which had, during the preceding fourteen months, survived in East Pakistan without ever facing the provincial legislature, was forced to resign. The Awami League, supported by a Hindu leader B.K. Das and his Congress Party, formed the Government. Mr. Ataur Rahman Khan became the Chief Minister.
  • 1956
    12 September
    1956
    The Awami League President, Mr. H.S. Suhrawardy, formed the government at the Centre in place of Chaudhry Mohamamd Ali who resigned (8 September). He was supported by the Republican Party, a new political force in the hands of President Iskander Mirza.
  • 1957
    30 June
    1957
    Maulana Bhashani, the provincial chief of the Awami League, resigned as party President because of H. S. Suhrawardy’s pro-West policies, including his support for the ‘imperialists’ on the Suez issue against the party manifesto.
  • 1957
    26 July
    1957
    Maulana Bhashani, known for his pro-Peking feelings formed the National Awami Party. It believed in secular politics but, unlike the Awami League, was supported by leftists.
  • 1957
    12 October
    1957
    Mr. H.S. Suhrawardy was forced to resign by the withdrawal of Republican support. Mr. I.I. Chundrigar took his place but he too had to resign within two months. Mr. Feroz Khan Noor succeeded him in December.
  • 1958
    18 June
    1958
    The Awami League coalition government was defeated in the East Pakistan Assembly. Mr. Ataur Rahman Khan resigned. Two days later, K.S.P. formed the Government but could hardly continue for three days. Once again, Governor’s Rule was imposed.
  • 1958
    26 August
    1958
    Governor’s Rule was lifted and the Awami League formed the Government in East Pakistan.
  • 1958
    21 September
    1958
    The members of the East Pakistan Assembly, while in session fought with each other on the ‘partiality’ of the Speaker. Many members were seriously injured. Mr. Shahid Ali, the Deputy Speaker, was killed.
  • 1958
    7 October
    1958
    With the support of General Mohammad Ayub Khan, President Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution, dissolved the Assembly and proclaimed Martial Law in the country. General Ayub Khan became the Chief Martial Law Administrator. This ‘revolution’ sealed the aspirations of the Bengalis who wanted to assert their political rights.
  • 1958
    27 October
    1958
    General Ayub Khan removed President Iskander Mirza, despatched him to London and assumed all powers, taking the rank of Field Marshal. He started ruling East Pakistan with the help of hand picked Governors. Since Bengalis had very little representation in the armed forces, they felt that they were excluded indefinitely from wielding political power. They were forced to look inwards. The repression of Martial Law nursed the feeling of provincialism.
  • 1959
    26 October
    1959
    Ayub Khan introduced ‘Basic Democracies’, a new system of local bodies which was soon converted into an electoral college. Eighty thousand Basic Democrats were to elect the President and members of the Legislature. Bengalis and the vast majority of West Pakistanis considered it a thin political veneer to perpetuate one-man rule.
  • 1960
    15 February
    1960
    Ayub Khan sought a vote of confidence from the eighty thousand Basic Democrats, 75,283 of them confirmed him in the office of the President. Two days later, Field Marshal Ayub Khan was sworn in as the first ‘elected’ President of Pakistan.
  • 1960
    April
    1960
    Lieutenant-General Azam Khan was appointed Governor of East Pakistan. He worked hard to win the support of the Bengalis. He thereby lost the support of Ayub Khan and was made to resign.
  • 1962
    8 June
    1962
    Ayub Khan gave his own Constitution to the country. Its principal features included a Presidential form of Government based on the system of Basic Democracies. It retained the party principle, with regard to the representation of the provinces in the National Assembly. The document did not enjoy popular support.
  • 1962
    20 October
    1962
    Monem Khan, a Bengali, was appointed Governor of East Pakistan. He held the office till the fall of Ayub Khan in early 1969. His utmost loyalty to Ayub Khan became his greatest disqualification for the Bengalis, who hated him as an ‘agent of the Punjabis’. The university graduates refused to receive their degrees from his hands.
  • 1963
    29 May
    1963
    A Bengali member of the National Assembly, Mr. Mahbubul Haq, said on the floor of the House: ‘East Pakistan contributed to the development of West Pakistan to the extent that, during the last fifteen years, East Pakistan has been drained out of one thousand crores of rupees of its solid assets by way of less imports and more exports. With that, Sir, West Pakistan was developed and these milion acres have been created. These big people talk so loudly: “leave East Pakistan out, we can maintain ourselves...” Today is the sixteenth year we have been reduced to paupers to build West Pakistan; we are told “get out boys, we have nothing for you, we do not require you.”
  • 1964
    2 January
    1964
    Presidential elections were held. Ayub Khan was opposed by Miss Fatima Jinnah, the sister of the Quaid-e-Azam. She was supported by all the opposition parties. Bengalis supported her whole heartedly as they considered it an opportunity to dislodge a dictator, and open the way for the restoration of their political rights. Although Ayub Khan won the majority support of the eighty thousand Basic Democrats he lost to Miss Jinnah in Dacca, the nerve-centre of East Pakistan politices, by 9.8 percent of the votes.
  • 1965
    6 September
    1965
    India and Pakistan went to war on the Kashmir issue once again. While it was a matter of life and death for West Pakistan, East Pakistan generally treated it as a conflict for from its threshold. Occasional visits by jets of the Indian Air Force to Dacca only heightened their sense of isolation and helplessness.
  • 1966
    11 January
    1966
    Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Declaration, which called for the withdrawal of troops by India and Pakistan. The People in West Pakistan, who believed they had won the war, treated it as a sellout. It weakened Ayub Khan’s position considerably.
  • 1966
    6 February
    1966
    Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announced his famous Six Points at Lahore. In essence, the Six points advocated a political arrangement in which the Central Government was to deal with foreign affairs and defence, without powers of taxation. Mujib introduced the programme as a demand for provincial autonomy, while the people of West Pakistan considered it as a move for secession.
  • 1967
    26 April
    1967
    Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto resigned as Foreign Minister from Ayub Khan’s Cabinet. He formed his own political party, the Pakistan People’s Party, in December.
  • 1968
    20 January
    1968
    The ‘Agartala Conspiracy’ was made public. It involved Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and twenty-two other Bengalis who allegedly wanted to separate East Pakistan and establish independent Bengal, with Indian assistance. When the trial started in July 1968, in Dacca, it evoked a totally unexpected Bengali reaction. While the prosecution wanted to dub Mujib a traitor, Bengalis made a hero out of him. The trial conferred such popularity on Mujib that would otherwise have taken him a lifetime to acquire.
  • 1968
    10-24 October
    1968
    Ayub Khan fell seriously ill. Already weakened politically by the Tashkent Declaration, his ailment also reduced him physically. The new forces of succession, both political and military, became active.
  • 1968
    27 October
    1968
    The year-long celebration of the tenth anniversary of the 1958 Revolution reached its peak. The crude publicity given to the achievements of the regime, mainly in the economic field, only made the people conscious of their economic hardships. It helped awaken the dormant public resentment against Ayub who was reported to have built up a family fortune through irregular means.
  • 1968
    7 November
    1968
    A student in Rawalpindi was killed by a police bullet. It gave a new fillip to the anit- Ayub demonstrations. The students found a champion of their cause in the person of Mr. Z.A. Bhutto, who led the movement to a point where Ayub was forced to resign. East Pakistanis also participated in the anti-Ayub riots as they hoped that the fall of the dictator would pave the way for their political goal.
  • 1969
    15 February
    1969
    Sergeant Zahoorul Haq, one of the accused in the Agartala Conspiracy Case, was shot dead while in military custody at Dacca cantonment. The Bengalis took it as a deliberate murder of their ‘hero’. The anti-Ayub and anti-West Pakistan feelings shot high.
  • 1969
    10-15 March
    1969
    Ayub held a Round Table Conference in Rawalpindi in an attempt to restore sanity to the street crowds by accepting the principal demands of the opposition parties. Some West Pakistani leaders insisted that Mujib should be released from jail to enable him to participate in the conference. The Agartala Conspiracy Case was withdrawn to suit this political contingency. Mujib declared before Dacca crowds, on 10 March, that parity was no longer acceptable to East Pakistan. He now wanted representation on the population (56 percent) basis. The Round Table Conference failed.
  • 1969
    25 March
    1969
    Field Marshal Ayub Khan handed over power to the Army chief, General Yahya Khan, who imposed Martial Law in the country . The commotion in the streets subsided within twenty four hours.
  • 1969
    26 March
    1969
    The Chief Martial Law Administrator, General Yahya Khan in his first broadcast to the nation, promised an early return to democracy and the transfer of power to the peoples representatives.
  • 1969
    28 November
    1969
    General Yahya Khan announced his acceptance of the one-man one vote principle. It was clearly designed to curry Mujib’s favour, but it angered West Pakistans who feared that it would lead to domination by the Bengalis. He also dissolved the one unit and restored the four provinces of West Pakistan.
  • 1970
    1 January
    1970
    Political activity was allowed in preparation for the first general elections, due latter in the year.
  • 1971
    3 January
    1971
    At a public ceremony watched by a million people in Dacca, Mujib administers an oath allegiance to his party MPs ensuring that they adhere to the Awami League's six points. The ceremony is attended by the diplomatic corps.
  • 1971
    14 January
    1971
    After talks with Mujib in Dacca, Yahya calls him the 'Future Prime Minister of Pakistan'. It is rumoured that Mujib has promised not to cut the army's budget.
  • 1971
    25 January
    1971
    Indian airliner 'hijacked' to Lahore where, after letting the passengers leave, the culprits blow it up on 27 January. India uses the incident to ban overflights by Pakistani airplanes between East and West Pakistan.
  • 1971
    15 February
    1971
    Yahya announces that the National Assembly would meet in Dacca on 3 March.Bhutto says in Peshawar that he and the Pakistan Peoples Party would not attend the assembly session on the date announced by the president.
  • 1971
    21 February
    1971
    Yahya Khan dissolves his civilian cabinet in view of the political situation obtaining in the country.
  • 1971
    28 February
    1971
    Bhutto demands the postponement of the national assembly and calls for a general strike 'from Khyber to Karachi'.
  • 1971
    1 March
    1971
    Yahya postpones the national assembly session sine die. This, he says is 'to give more time to political leaders of East and West Pakistan to arrive at a reasonable understanding on the issue of Constitution making. Dacca paralysed by strike; curfew imposed, police fire on mob, killing one.
  • 1971
    3 March
    1971
    Mujib rejects Yahya's invitation to an all party conference to resolve constitutional problems; says the postponement of the Assembly was at the behest of 'vested interests and bureaucratic lackeys' (meaning Bhutto), and an 'intolerable insult to the people'; riots continue throughout East Pakistan, directed against West Pakistani civilians and Bihari Muslims.
  • 1971
    6 March
    1971
    Yahya meets Bhutto and announces that the national assembly will meet on 25 March; Bhutto agrees to attend; Lieutenant General Tikka Khan appointed governor of East Pakistan; Mujib expected to declare independence at a rally the following day.
  • 1971
    7 March
    1971
    At a rally in Dacca, Mujib announces four conditions for attending the assembly; immediate transfer of power; withdrawal of martial law; return of troops to the barracks; inquiry into the conduct of troops.
  • 1971
    8 March
    1971
    Mujib's non-cooperation movement in full swing; government offices closed down; no taxes to be paid.
  • 1971
    9 March
    1971
    Foreign governments begin evacuation of their nationals from East Pakistan. Bhashani tells a rally in Dacca that 'no power on earth can stop the march of the Bengalis towards freedom and independence'.
  • 1971
    14 March
    1971
    Bhutto says 'power in East Pakistan should be transferred to majority party there and in West Pakistan to majority party here.'Yahya arrives in Dacca for talks with Mujib. Bhutto says in Karachi, that the Awami League and the Pakistan Peoples' Party should share power in the central government while controlling their own regions. 'Only such an arrangement will ensure the unity of Pakistan.'
  • 1971
    16 March
    1971
    Yahya and Mujib meet in Dacca for two and a half hours. Chittagong dockers on orders from Mujib, refuse to unload MS Swat carrying Chinese arms.
  • 1971
    18 March
    1971
    Deadlock reported in Yahya-Mujib talks. Mujib rejects commission of inquiry into army shootings.
  • 1971
    19 March
    1971
    Mujib says he is hopeful that a settlement would be reached.
  • 1971
    20 March
    1971
    After another meeting with Yahya, Mujib says 'we are progressing in our discussions'.
  • 1971
    21 March
    1971
    Bhutto arrives in Dacca with twelve of his party 'advisers.'
  • 1971
    22 March
    1971
    Dacca Radio reports that 'President Yahya and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman have reached a compromise formula to end the country's political crisis.' In a broadcast to the nation, Yahya says : I have no doubt that we shall succeed in resolving the current political crisis. Bhutto joins talks in Dacca. National Assembly session again postponed 'in consultation with leaders of political parties with a view to facilitating the process of enlarging the area of agreement'.
  • 1971
    23 March
    1971
    Republic Day in Pakistan; Pakistan national flag hauled down from buildings in Dacca the new Bangladesh flag flies over hundreds of houses including Mujib's, schools and many government offices. The Awami League calls it 'Resistance Day' and Bhashani dubs it 'Independence Days'.
  • 1971
    24 March
    1971
    On instructions from Bhutto in Dacca, the Pakistan Peoples' Party in the Punjab launches a non-cooperation movement. In Lahore, the party says it will 'never forgive the present regime,' if power was transferred to Mujib. The PPP chief in Lahore says in future he would issue ' days to day orders to the administration from his residence, The 'Peoples Guard' - a militia raised by Bhutto - announces that it would start a week -long show of force. In Chittagong, troops attempting to unload arms from a ship were trapped when local people erected barricades at the dock gates. Final meeting of advisers held in Dacca. Bhutto says in Dacca that it would be better if he and Mujib entered into direct talks. Other West Pakistani politicians return to Karachi and report that the talks had ended in a 'hopeless mess.'
  • 1971
    25 March
    1971
    Yahya flies back to Karachi. Mujib accuses the army of 'atrocities and the killing of unarmed people'; asks the people to prepare for the 'supreme sacrifice'; issues directives to foreign companies to negotiate all export deals through two East Bengal banks- the Eastern Banking Company and the Eastern Mercantile Bank; foreign posts and telegraph agencies ordered to route communications through Manila and London. East Bengal Regiment, East Pakistan Rifles, the armed reserve police, and the civil police pledge support for the Awami League. Bhutto says 'what is sought for East Pakistan is beyond autonomy - it borders on sovereignty'. Army convoys move into Dacca. Mujib arrested.
  • 1971
    26 March
    1971
    Yahya, in a broadcast from Karachi, calls Mujib a traitor, bans the Awami League, and says he has ordered the army to 'fully restore the authority of the Government' in East Pakistan. Confused reports of heavy fighting from all parts of East Pakistan. Foreign correspondents expelled from Dacca.
  • 1971
    28 March
    1971
    Tikka Khan says in Dacca that 'complete peace has been restored and life is returning to normal in East Pakistan'. Bhutto says, ' Thanks to Allah, Pakistan is saved'.
  • 1971
    30 March
    1971
    India asks U Thant to intervene in East Pakistan civil war.
  • 1971
    31 March
    1971
    Indian parliament passes a resolution calling on other Governments to put pressure on the Pakistan regime to stop 'the systematic destruction of the people, which amounts to genocide'.
  • 1971
    2 April
    1971
    President Podgorny of Russia, in a message to Yahya, asks the Pakistani president to 'end the bloodshed and seek a political solution in the interest of peace in the region'.
  • 1971
    12 April
    1971
    Yayha receives massage from Zhou Enlai promising support and accusing India of interference in the internal affairs of Pakistan.
  • 1971
    15 April
    1971
    India accuses Yahya's regime of 'savage and medieval butchery' in East Pakistan.
  • 1971
    17 April
    1971
    Bangladesh proclaimed at a ceremony at 'Mujibnagar'- a small village on the Indian border.
  • 1971
    18 April
    1971
    Pakistan's Deputy high Commissioner in Calcutta announces his defection to Bangladesh.
  • 1971
    23 April
    1971
    Pakistan asks India to close down its mission in Dacca.
  • 1971
    10 May
    1971
    Radio Pakistan claims that the army has secured control of Chittagong.
  • 1971
    12 May
    1971
    Yahya Khan announces the beginning of 'political talks' with East Pakistan leader, Nurul Amin.
  • 1971
    14 May
    1971
    India reports refugees arriving at the rate of 100,000 a day. Total to date given as two million. Pakistan crisis debated in the British House of Commons.
  • 1971
    15 May
    1971
    Bhutto says, 'now is the time to talk to the East Bengalis'. M M Ahmed, Yahya's economic adviser, is given a cool reception in London.
  • 1971
    21 May
    1971
    Yahya asks all 'bonafide Pakistan citizens' to return to East Pakistan.
  • 1971
    29 May
    1971
    India asks all aid-giving countries to suspend aid to Pakistan. Refugee total reported as more than four million.
  • 1971
    1 June
    1971
    First reports of cholera in refugee camps.
  • 1971
    4 June
    1971
    2,500 reported dead from cholera.
  • 1971
    5 June
    1971
    Mrs. Gandhi flies in the 'inspect cholera affected areas'.
  • 1971
    9 June
    1971
    Sir Alec Douglas - Hume, the British foreign secretary, says in the House of Commons that 'peace will not return to East Pakistan until civil Government has been restored'.
  • 1971
    14 June
    1971
    Bhutto says the visit of a British Parliamentary delegation is an insult to Pakistan.'
  • 1971
    15 June
    1971
    Refugee total reported as 5.5 million.
  • 1971
    16 June
    1971
    Peter Cargil of the World Bank arrives in Rawalpindi to tell Yahya that no more aid would be forthcoming until the end of the civil war in East Pakistan.
  • 1971
    20 June
    1971
    Refugee total reported as six million.
  • 1971
    21 June
    1971
    Swaran Singh, the Indian external affairs minister, holds talks with the British Prime Minister and foreign secretary in London. Aid Consortium meeting in Paris adjourned without considering allocations to Pakistan.
  • 1971
    24 June
    1971
    Britain announces suspension of all aid to Pakistan. Uproar in Indian parliament over the continued shipment of US arms for Pakistan.
  • 1971
    28 June
    1971
    Yahya announces his plan for the transfer of power in 'about four months'.
  • 1971
    7 July
    1971
    France announces ban on the sale of arms to Pakistan.
  • 1971
    13 July
    1971
    New York Times publishes extracts from the World Bank's confidential report on the situation in East Pakistan.
  • 1971
    15 July
    1971
    The US house of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee votes to halt military and other aid to Pakistan.
  • 1971
    19 July
    1971
    U Thant suggests the stationing of UN observers along the India-East Pakistan border to supervise the repatriation of refugees. India rejects the suggestion.
  • 1971
    5 August
    1971
    Fifteen East Pakistani diplomats in the US announce their decision to recognize Bangladesh.Yahya's White Paper on East Pakistan published.
  • 1971
    9 August
    1971
    Indo -Soviet Treaty of 'Friendship, Peace, and Co-operation' signed in New Delhi.
  • 1971
    11 August
    1971
    Mujib put on trial in West Pakistan. Russia and India make a joint demand for 'urgent steps to be taken in East Pakistan for achievement of political solution'.
  • 1971
    17 August
    1971
    Pakistan proposes that a 'good offices committee' of the UN Security Council should visit both India and Pakistan. India says such a move by the UN would not be acceptable.
  • 1971
    18 August
    1971
    Ninety four of the Awami League members of the national assembly cleared by Yahya.
  • 1971
    31 August
    1971
    Dr. A. M. Malik, an elder Bengali statesman, appointed governor of East Pakistan. Bhutto calls the appointment an 'eyewash'.
  • 1971
    5 September
    1971
    Yahya announces 'general amnesty'.
  • 1971
    13 September
    1971
    Bhutto and Yahya meet in Islamabad. Bhutto reported to be pressing for the transfer of power to him.
  • 1971
    14 September
    1971
    Awami League in Calcutta agrees to form a 'consultative committee' that would include the National Awami Party and the Communist Party.
  • 1971
    15 September
    1971
    M M Ahmed, Yahya's economic adviser, stabbed in his office in Islamabad.
  • 1971
    23 September
    1971
    Bhutto threatens 'other means' to achieve democracy in Pakistan.
  • 1971
    26 September
    1971
    The National Awami Party of West Pakistan calls for the release of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
  • 1971
    29 September
    1971
    Mrs. Gandhi and Kosygin, in a joint statement issued in Moscow, call for urgent measures towards a political solution of problems in East Bengal'.
  • 1971
    5 October
    1971
    Mahmud Ali, the Bengali leader of the Pakistan delegation to the UN General Assembly, accuses India of waging a 'clandestine war' against Pakistan.
  • 1971
    9 October
    1971
    Yahya Khan withdraws ban on political activity in the country but the Awami League remains proscribed.
  • 1971
    12 October
    1971
    Yahya Khan announces that the new Constitution drafted by experts would be published on 25 December, the by-elections for the national assembly would be completed by 3 December, and the assembly would meet on 27 December, followed by the formation of a civilian Government.
  • 1971
    14 October
    1971
    Abdul Monem Khan, a former Governor of East Pakistan, assassinated in Dacca.
  • 1971
    17 October
    1971
    Jagjivan Ram, the Indian defence Minister, says that if war comes, India 'would not withdraw from captured Pakistani cities'.
  • 1971
    19 October
    1971
    Mrs Gandhi rules out talks with Yahya Khan. 'What is there to discuss between India and Pakistan?' she asks.
  • 1971
    29 October
    1971
    Mrs. Gandhi arrives London at the start of her world tour.
  • 1971
    5 November
    1971
    A Pakistani delegation headed by Bhutto arrives in Beijing.
  • 1971
    7 November
    1971
    China promises Pakistan 'resolute support' but advises Bhutto to seek a political solution.
  • 1971
    8 November
    1971
    US revokes licences for the export of arms to Pakistan. On his return from Bejiing, Bhutto says: 'We are now in full preparedness to maintain territorial integrity against foreign aggression.'
  • 1971
    10 November
    1971
    Three Indian battalions, supported by tank and artillery, attack at Belonia in Noakhali district of East Pakistan.
  • 1971
    12 November
    1971
    Bhutto says he will not tolerate an East Pakistan dominated Government after the by elections. 'We will topple it in 40 days,' he said. India accuses Pakistan of more intrusions into its territory.
  • 1971
    17 November
    1971
    Edward Heath, Willy Brandt, and Richard Nixon send a joint appeal to Yahya urging him to embark on a 'political initiative'.
  • 1971
    18 November
    1971
    Mrs. Gandhi, in a letter to U Thant, says Pakistan was 'seriously preparing to launch a large scale armed conflict with India'.
  • 1971
    22 November
    1971
    Indian troops cross into East Pakistan at several points along the international frontier. Pakistan declares a state of emergency. Yahya calls Bhutto and other leaders for talks in Islamabad. General Niazi says in Dacca that Indian troops had occupied three or four areas in East Pakistan'.
  • 1971
    25 November
    1971
    Yahya says that Indian Military activity in East Pakistan is leading the two countries to the 'point of on return.'
  • 1971
    3 December
    1971
    Pakistan Air Force strike at Indian airfields. Indian and Pakistani land forces cross each other's borders in the Punjab, Rajasthan, and Kashmir.
  • 1971
    4 December
    1971
    The Security Council meets to consider cease-fire. The US President says in Washington that 'India bears the major responsibility for the war with Pakistan'.
  • 1971
    6 December
    1971
    After three Russian vetoes had blocked a cease-fire resolution, the Security Council agrees to transfer the question to the General Assembly. India recognizes Bangladesh.
  • 1971
    7 December
    1971
    The UN General Assembly passes a cease-fire resolution by 104 votes to eleven with ten abstentions.
  • 1971
    8 December
    1971
    ndia says it regards the General Assembly resolution as 'impracticable and unrealistic.' A spokesman for President Nixon says in Washington that the US had secured Yahya Khan's agreement for the grant of 'virtual autonomy' to Bangladesh and negotiations with the Awami League before the Indian offensive began. The US had kept Mrs. Gandhi informed.
  • 1971
    14 December
    1971
    As Indian troops close in on Dacca, Dr. A M Malik, Governor of East Pakistan, and his cabinet resigns.
  • 1971
    16 December
    1971
    Surrender in Dacca. Yahya says: ' We may lose a battle but final victory in the war of survival shall be ours..... the armed forces will not cease their struggle until aggression is vacated and justice prevails'.
  • 1971
    17 December
    1971
    Yahya accepts cease-fire in the west.
  • 1971
    20 December
    1971
    Bhutto succeeds Yahya as President and Chief marital law administrator.
  • 1971
    21 December
    1971
    Mujib moved out from prison to be put under house arrest.
  • 1972
    8 January
    1972
    Mujib flies to London on his way to Bangladesh. Yahya Khan put under house arrest.

Zammu and Kashmir issue

Zinnah

Curator

Editor Writer Online activist Interested on the history of liberation war of Bangladesh

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